T A T Y Z
Structure of a shoe
by TATYZ on January 16th, 2019

  Footwear
Any form or footwear made of various kinds of materials or combination of materials like leather, canvas, rubber, textiles, wood synthetics to protect the foot from cold, heat, thorns, hazards, etc., and to serve as a costume in the form of sandal, shoe or boot. These shall include walking shoes, dress shoes, occasional footwear, sports footwear, occupational footwear, orthopaedic and surgical footwear meant for the use of babies, children, ladies or gents.

Shoe
   A footwear having an outer covering for the entire feet not coming much above the ankle. It is built up or assembled on a last or appropriate mould to the required shape, size and fitting.

   Footwear components

Any fabric or semi-fabricated component made of various kinds of materials or combination of materials such as leather, canvas, textiles, wood and synthetics for use in the manufacture of the footwear.
  The upper part of the shoe consists of number of components such as vamp, quarters, toe box, counter, throat etc. and the same are aligned and assembled together by various methods. The upper component of the shoe is usually made of a variety of materials and is designed to allow the foot to breathe.
 The bottom part of the shoe consists of number of components, such as insole, sole heel, shank etc. and the same are aligned and assembled together by various methods. The assembled upper part and bottom parts are attached to each other by various methods.


    Upper components

 Vamp
 The section of boot or shoe upper which covers the foot at the joint area, lying between the toe cap and quarter. It is subjected to maximum flexing while walking.

Tongue
 A piece of upper leather placed below the facings and eyelets to prevent the direct contact of the foot with the laces. Tongue may be a separate piece or one with the vamp.
 
Toe cap
  The portion of the upper which covers the toe-end of the foot, extending from the vamp up to the toe end.

Quarters
 The sections of the upper which cover the heel and connect vamp of the footwear. It is sometimes joined at the back by a back strip.
 
Box Toe
  A stiffener used to maintain and reinforce the shape of the shoe to, preserve the toe-room allowed within the shoe, and to protect the wearer’s toes from blows. Rigid box toes are made of leather, thermoplastic resin-impregnated fibre, solvent softened plastic-impregnated fibre, and water softened starch-impregnated buck ram. Flexible box toes are made of thermoplastic cork combination with fabric backing, and plastic laminates placed between fabric sheets. Soft box toes are made of rubberized felt or fabric. Metal box toss are used in some safety footwears.

Counter
 A piece of stiffening material which passes around the heel of the boot/shoe to support the outer leather. In orthopaedic shoes the counter is extended forward in the innerside. In heavy and industrial bootslshoes for miners, furnacemen and steel workers metal counters are used on the outside of the boot and shoe. It may also mean a small piece of lining material stitched inside the boot and shoe at the back to rain the small stiffener specially in the unlined boot and shoe. One upper portion of the boot and shoe back is also known as counter.

Lining
 The inside material used under the upper. These are generally cut to the same shape of upper, giving certain allowances. These are named after the components, for example, vamp lining, tongue lining and quarter lining. Vamp linings are generally taken out of fabric whereas the others from the tanned goat, sheep or calf skins or splits.

Stiffeners
A pre-shaped stiffening material inserted between the outside and the lining or attached to the quarters if the footwear is unlined.

Quarter lining
The materials used as linings of the quarters of footwear.

Interlining
A material used between the footwear upper and lining to increase thickness, strength and plumpness of the upper materials as well as to prevent the shape of the shoe during wear.


Bottom components

   The lower portion of the shoe consists of the sole, shank and heel. The sole is divided into the insole and the outsole. The outsole should be waterproof, durable and possess some level of friction high enough to prevent slipping. The shank reinforces the shoe to prevent distortion of the shape of the shoe from regular wear. The heel is designed to hit the ground with each step forward.

 Insole of a Shoe
A component of the shoe bottom resting at the bottom of the last which holds the upper and the sole firmly in position. This is also known as foundation of the shoe.

 Bottom filler
The material ( cork, felt, rubber etc) used to fill up the cavity formed by the lasted margin of the upper and the insole.

Heel
The seat part of the footwear bottom sometimes attached separately and sometimes an integral part of the sole. It may be of leather, rubber, wood, plastics (like PVC, polyurethane, etc,) nitrite, masonite board, particle board, etc, and may be of various types given under their non names, namely, Spanish, Louis, Wedge, etc. The heel tip/top lift is an integral part of the heel.

Welt
A special strip of leather with one edge on the grain side bevelled and a groove on the flesh side for the welt stitches. It is attached to the insole and upper around the outer edge of the footwear and to which the outsole is attached afterwards.

Soles
The bottom pieces of any variety of footwear which are in contact with the ground.

Sock
The lining material which cover partially or completely the insole of footwear.

Shank

A piece of material, such as steel, wood or fibre-board, inserted between the sole and the insole, extending from the heel scat up to a point behind the ball line. This is used to stiffen the waist portion of the shoe so that it can support tha arch of the foot.


Midsoles
Soles cut to the shape of the outsoles and used between the outsoles and insoles to increase the thickness of the soles.



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