T A T Y Z
SHOE SOLE REQUIREMENTS
by TATYZ on May 12th, 2018

     SOLE is a bottom part of a shoe  which is in contact with the ground​.  It  can be made from a variety of materials as as natural rubber, polyurethane, or polyvinyl chloride (PVC) compounds,  wood, natural leather.  Soles can be simple — a single material in a single layer — or they can be complex, with multiple structures or layers and materials ( for example, wood platform with rubber  or natural leather with top rubber). Sole is often called outsole.

    The main function of the outsole (sole) is to protect the sole of the foot and  provide traction as well as to reduce wear on the midsole thereby increasing the overall durability of the shoe.   

      There are 3 main requirements applied to qualities of the sole material.
  •      Flexibility 
       Shoe soles has to be flexible as feet  bend while walking.  This mainly applies to low heel shoes and  athletic shoes.  A runner, needs to have the shoe flex where the foot naturally flexes. Designers and sport researchers, similar to the design considerations for cushioning, must keep in mind the natural flex lines of the foot relative the specific need of the sport.​
  •     Traction
   The traction properties of a shoe sole , really a measure of the friction between the outsole and the walking surface, are directly related to the materials used in the outsoles construction as well as the pattern on the outsole. ​
  •     ​Durability
    While walking or running  in a shoe, the outsole wears away, due to friction. In particular the parts of the shoe that come into contact with the ground the most, wear away the fastest.   Researchers and designers must take into account the points of contact  in order to design outsoles that do not wear out to quickly. 

   The other important requirements are :

   Abrasion: Abrasion is the property related with the resistance that a material can addle, when it is subject to friction. 
   Adhesion: This property determines the strength of adhesion between two surfaces: upper/outsole. 
   Hardness: Hardness is an intrinsic property of materials and normally is determined in plastics and rubbers by means of durometers.
   Thickness: Thickness can be determined for leather, rubber and soles materials. It can vary greatly.
   Tear strength: Tear strength is the force required to tear a material.
  Cushioning and shock absorption: Cushioning and shock absorption are related with contact of footwear in ground during walking. This properties can be assessed in soles, insocks, midsoles.
   Water resistance: This property is related to the penetration
of water in footwear through sole. For soles made from leather is very important.
   Thermal Insulation: This property is important for soles, midsoles,  insoles in  winter boots. Thermal insulation is a measure of the rate at which heat passes through a material or through a series of layers of different materials.
    Heat and fire protection:Heat and fire protection of materials are related to its heat transmission heat and combustion properties.The properties of  sole materials and products when subjected to fire can be evaluated through contact with the flame to assess the combustion rate, extension and combustion time. 
   Slip resistance: Slip resistance is related to the coefficient of friction between soles and the floor in which the footwear it’s in use. 
   








  

 


Posted in Shoe/Bag Materials    Tagged with shoe sole requirements, shoe sole properties, leather sole qualities, rubber sole qualities


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