T A T Y Z
HOW SHOES ARE MADE: STEP BY STEP
by TATYZ on February 26th, 2018

The whole process of making shoes can be divided into 8  steps:

1. Sketching the future design
2. Technical drawings and pattern making
3. Choosing the leather and other materials
4.Cutting out the details of the shoe model
5. Upper and lining stitching 
6. Lasting process using shoe lasts
7. Sole and heel attaching
​8. Quality control and packing.
Shoemaking is a difficult and long process which involves several stages and processes.

Abrading
The roughening up of the over margin of the lasted upper.

Assembling Upper
Inserting of the prepared components, such as toe-puff, stiffener and side lining, in the respective positions. The term also refers to the tacking of the upper to the last at the counter point prior to being lasted.

Attaching
 Attachment of the upper and bottom parts using one of the various methods of attachments

Backing
 Laminating a piece of fabric to leather or other components of a footwear by adhesive.

Back Tacking
 An operation in upper assembly for taking the lower and of the upper on the insole, before feeding it to the machine for pulling over by machine.

Beading
 The turning in of a skived or unskived edge of an upper section. Sometimes the skived edge is turned over a cotton tape to give a pleasing appearance and more strength at the edges.
Bead on Sole Edge
The tiny ridge or bead which will be found on finished sole edge of shoe either on one or both sides. The ridges on the welt and on the sole edges are respectively know as welt bead and sole bead.

Bedding Sole
 Fixing sole in its proper position so as to conform to the bottom shape of the last in mellow condition.

Bed Lasting
 An operation by which upper at the toe and seat is wiped to proper position on the insole and kept in position by cement, wire or tacks.

Benching
  Operation of giving final faking and fiddling to the shoes, after having passed through all the finishing operations, for any slight imperfection either in upper or bottom.

Bevelling
   Reducing the substance of certain components of the shoe bottom by skiving, such as sole waist bevelling, insole seat bevelling, welt bevelling, piece sole bevelling and graft sole bevelling.

 Binding
   The treatment of an edge at top line of inside by the use of a fabric or leather strip, stitched and turned in by different methods.Covering the edges of inside of ladies footwear with a strip of leather or fabric.

 Blocked fitting upper
A method of fitting the upper, in which sections of the upper are placed over a wooden block, similar in shape to the last and positioned to assume a shape relative to the final shape of the shoe.

Bottoming
The attachment of the lasted footwear to the sole by direct or indirect method of construction.

Bottom levelling
Levelling either on machine under high pressure or by hand using sleeking sticks to give the bottom a good shape and remove all bumpiness after the soles are stitched and channel-closed.

Bottom manipulation
Clicking or cutting of bottom components.

Boxing
The final operation in which the shoes are packed in boxes in pairs, ready to go out of factory.

 Bracing
Sewing the upper temporarily to the insole shoulder, before the lasting rivets are removed to hold the upper in position firmly for welt sewing.

Breasting
Trimming or cutting down the front or the breast of the heel with either a power-driven, suitably shaped descending knife or by hand knife.

Buffing
  Removing a thin layer from the grain side of the sole or insole by use of abrasive to give it a final look or to allow the penetration of colour and prevent cracking.

Bunching
   Term applied to action of the bottom filling shifting from its own place and bunching or depositing at different places forming humps and causing annoyance to the wearer.

Bunking
  Putting a fancy pattern on the sole edge of the shoe bottom by means of an adjustable heated tool which usually runs over the channel to hide any fault in channelling or channels laying and to improve the appearance of the footwear bottom.

Burnished edge, upper
The treatment of a specially skived edge given to cheap quality footwear by a special machine in which the fibres on the edges are burnt to give a slightly curled appearance and to give a false folded edge.

 Burnishing
Polishing to secure a bright glossy finish.

Cementing
Application of cement on roughed or scoured portion of the footwear by brush or machine.

Channelling
The production of a groove or channel in the leather in which the stitching is laid while attaching the soles and other parts.

Channel laying
Closing the channel lip after sole stitching by applying cement to the channel or otherwise and rubbing the lip down.

Channelling soles
Making a slanting cut along the edge or cutting on an open groove at an angle along the edge of the sole on the grain side. The sole stitches are concealed or bedded in this channel to avoid wear with or without lip being closed.

Channel opening
An operation to raise the lip of the channel after cutting to facilitate sewing.

Clicking
 Cutting the footwear components out of upper leather or other materials with the help of templates or clicking dies.

Closing
 Assembling the components of the upper by stitching of other fastening method.

Code marking
 Blind sizes are used in footwear.

Colour marking
 In this method, the lasting edges of the sectional parts are painted with definite colour to indicate the sizes. This method is also used in the identification of lasts by colouring the top projected portion of the last with definite colour to indicate the size.

Compo
 A proprietory name for the original modern process of cementing sole and upper together with pyroxylin cement.

Component splitting
 Operation of reducing the thickness of the footwear components by passing the individual components through a splitting machine having a flat or band type knife.

 Conditioning of the upper
   Softening the upper with heat and moisture to facilitate lasting operation.

Conforming of soles
 The operation of shaping the sole before applying it to the footwear, so that it can conform to the last but carry a high heel or rounded waist.

Crimping
 To make folds or pleats in the whole-cut upper to facilitate lasting in Moccasin type of slippers.

Decorating upper
 Producing a fancy effect on upper by punching, stitching or gimping.

Denailing
 Removal of nails used for temporary attachment of insoles with last.

Direct cutting of the bottom
 An operation of cutting the bottom stock of a particular ready shape from the bend or side which may not convenient for units producing various shapes simultaneously.

Drafting
 A process in which the initial stretch of the upper is taken out to give an approximate shape of the last prior to actual lasting. This consists of a series pulls taken in different directions.

Dressing
 Cleaning and polishing footwear with liquid/paste polishes and creams.

Dressing of upper
 Treatment given to footwear uppers before they are finally packed. It consist of checking evenness of the shade of footwear uppers and giving a final coat of the footwear dressing.

Edge Burnishing
 The treatment of a specially skived edge given to cheap quality footwear by a special machine in which the fibres on the edges are burnt to give a slightly curled appearance and to give a false folded edge.​

Edge setting
 Finishing the edges of the soles with polish applied under heavy pressure by rubbing or ironing the edges with or without wax to give a fine uniform finish and gloss and impart waterproofness.

Edge Treatment
 Giving different treatments to the edge of the upper components, and to the edge of the soles and heels during the manufacturing processes, such as skiving, gimping, binding and edge trimming.

Edge Trimming
 Shaping the edges of the soles by trimmers to obtain required shape of edges (fudge edge, bevelled edge, round edge, square edge, extension edge etc.)

Edging
 Removing the sharp edges of the leather in a variety of ways such as brushing ironing.

Embossing
 A method of printing or raising up ornamentation on a surface by heat and pressure.

Eyeletting
 Fastening eyelets to the footwear upper.

Feathering insole
 Beveling of the flesh side edge of the insole either all around or only at the seat to facilitate moulding of the upper over the insole.

Finishing Footwear
 The fined operation performed on footwear after constructional work has been completed to improve quality of the footwear by making the edge resistant to water and by improving its appearance.

Fitting up
 A term applied to the gathering together of the bottoming components according to the instruction.

Force Lasting
 Operation of forcing the last in the upper is called force lasting. Thus in certain construction where the insoles are stitched together with the upper, the last is to be forced in for the subsequent operations in the making department.

Forme cutting
 The cutting of the forme on a flat surface.

Grading patterns
 This is to produce patterns of different sizes and fittings, proportionately from a model either by machine or by a hand tool.

Hand welting
 Attaching of welts with stitches by hand.

Heel Attaching
 Fixing the heel to the seat of the footwear permanently.

Heel Building
  Process of attaching several lifts having a rand or skeleton lift at the base according to required thickness. Heels of inside attachment have their top pieces attached by slugging wire or nails.

Heel scouring
 Shaping and smoothening out the edge or surface of the heel with abrasive.

Hot Blasting
 Giving some form of heat treatment to the leather upper to smooth out any wrinkles and to tighten up the grain surface of the leather.

Horsing
 Placing of upper on last in a proper position for lasting.

Insole slashing
 Making the insole of machine-sewn, cemented or other types of constructions, more flexible. The operation consists of putting of a few rows of slashes across the forepart of the insole. These slashes are hardly one millimetre deep.

Ironing out
A finishing process of footwears by electrically heated iron.

Junking
 A process for separating stitches on sole by a metal wheel, known as junk wheel. This is applied on stitched-in groove or stitched-aloft work.

Lasting
 Moulding the upper to the exact shape of the last by a series of pulls and to attach it to the insole by thread, tacks or staples or cement permanently.

Lasting Slipping
 Removing the last from the finished or ready footwear.

Levelling of sole
After the operation of channel closing on the stitched soles the forepart and the waist of the sole is smoothened to the shape of the last and levelled with the help of either levelling feet roller under pressure or with a wooden sleeking stick to improve the appearance of the bottom.Machine-sewn method of construction

Marking
 The printing on stamping of sizes and other details on the lining of the footwear.

Mulling
 Mulling is to bring the upper in such a condition artificially that it will last easily and will not break, by using heat in addition to moisture.

Panning up
 Hammering down the edges of leathers in the heel during hand finishing with the wedge shaped end of the hammer to close them thoroughly and made the heel solid.

Perforating
 Ornamenting of the uppers by means of series of holes of various shapes and sizes.

Pounding
 Flattening the creases which occur during fasting of uppers and also bringing out a clean feather edge with the help of pounding machine.

Pulling over
 Initial moulding of footwear upper on lasts by 3 to 5 tacks to the insole by mechanical means, prior to final lasting.

Punching
 The operation of making holes in upper components, either as decorative perforations or for eyeletting.

Quarter reforming
 An operation by which quarter tops of footwear are given a final shape at the finishing stage. The operation consists of striking and pressing the top edge of the quarter lining under the top edge of the upper, turning or pulling inwards the top edge of the shoe along the lining and finally ironing or shrinking out any fullness in material, under thermostatic control.

Ranging
 Cutting a large piece of hide into small suitable pieces.

Recasting
  Putting the last again after having performed certain operations, for example in single sole footwear the last has to be slipped off prior to the sole stitching and then slipper back, that is, relasted, to enable the remaining operations to be completed.

Rolling
 An operation intended for leveling the substance by pressing down the high spots and also to solidify the fibres and increase its resistance to abrasive wear, equivalent for hammering the leather. The components requiring this effect are passed through two rollers moving in the same direction, pressure of which can be regulated as desired.
 
Seam rubbing
 Flattening by rubbing down the seams of the closed seam which opened up, to prevent the ridge formed by the seam hurting the wearer and making it easier for the closing operations.

Seat shaping
 A process by machine to remove lasting pleats and wrinkles to obtain correct shaping of seat.

Skiving stiffeners and puffs
 Reducing thickness of the stiffeners and puffs at the edges by slicing off a tapering section to minimize difficulties in lasting then and to prevent them in becoming visible through the upper.​

Slitting
 An operation in forme cutting in which two pieces of paper or traced out with a suitable margin over the approximate forme of the last. After fixing the paper on to the last a few slits or cuts are made in the paper at the acute concave curves to allow the paper to lie flat on the last.

Sole attaching
 Fixing of outsole of a footwear to the upper permanently by stitching, riveting, screwing, pegging or cementing.

Sole stitching
 Sewing sole by stitching.

Splitting
 Dividing an upper or bottom component into two or more parts by cutting it through its thickness parallel to the surface.

Spray dressing
 Upper dressing by spray gun or jet blown to the footwear.

Stitch marking
 Providing necessary marks on uppers for ornamentation by stitching and perforating. This is necessary to enable the operators to perform their work accurately.

Tempering soles
 Soaking of soles in water to a particular degree in order to soften them to facilitate moulding, channelling and stitching.

Thermo-cementing
 This operation is done by machine. This eliminates the need for previous cementing as a separate operation. A roll of thermo-plastic adhesive is fed to the machine and is activated and fed to the point of work. Both cementing and folding are done simultaneously.

Treeing
 Placing the footwear on a foot tree and to carry out the operation of hot blasting.

Upper Dressing
 Finishes of various nature like water or spirit based dressing sheltac and was which are applied on the finished footwear leather uppers after proper cleaning at the stage of finishing.

Upper preparation
 Carrying out various operations on an upper of footwear before or between actual stitching processes.

Vamping
 Stitching the vamp with the quarters.

Vulcanizing
 A chemical process used to melt, mould to attach rubber/plastic polyurethane sole to the lasted upper by heat and pressure in a closed cavity.

Wheeling
 A finish to the top of the edges of a footwear by corrugated wheel used to imitate stitching.




Posted in Shoemaking    Tagged with assembling shoe upper, backing shoes, beading leather, bedding sole, benching, shoemaking, bewelling, binding, bracing, breasting shoe, buffing, bunching, cementing shoes, cement lasting, channeling sole, clicking, leather splitting, conditioning of the shoe upper, conforming of soles, edging


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