T A T Y Z
by TATYZ on October 17th, 2018

   Moccasins is one of the oldest type of footwear  as well as sandals known to humans.  In the early age it was made of 1 piece of leather pulled tightly with a  string around  the foot. Since then the construction and design of moccasins have change a lot and nowadays  a moccasin is a shoe, made  other soft leather, consisting of a sole and sides made of one piece of leather, stitched together at the top  with a vamp (additional panel of leather).  

    This type of footwear is light and comfortable as it doesn't have a midsole and toe stiffener, sometimes it doesn't have full lining. The sole is soft and flexible made of moulded material ( rubber, PU, etc) or leather with/ without welt and stacked leather heel.

   Moccasin upper consists of 2 main details: the body  which covers the sides and bottom of the foot and the upper vamp which covers top of the foot and ​hand-stitched to the body. The body detail can also have separate heel counter detail, the upper vamp can have additional tongue (if moccasin is laced) or decorative details ( strap with buckle).
     
  There are few examples of moccasin design on the photo below.
   
​There are many ways of  stitching the body details with the vamp. Here are few of them.

 
​To make moccasins you need a pair of rounded toe low-heel shoe lasts.

Here is step-by-step guide how to design basic moccasins.

1.  Cover the surface of shoe last with masking tape and mark  technical lines and points as on the photo. Draw lines of the upper vamp and other decorative details
2. Prepare outer and inner side to be flattened by marking the parallels.
2.  ​Then remove each side to be flattened. Make some slots in the outer side  (as shown)  in order to reduce stress given by the 2D flattening.
 
3. ​Make some slots in the inner side  (as shown) 
4. Flattening the outer and inner sides
5. Flat details 
6. Draw the  body detail using insole and outer/inner side details
7. Upper vamp with correction
8. Final pattern of the upper vamp with holes for hand stitching, heel counter and decorative strap
9. Final pattern of the body detail
10. Lining pattern

by TATYZ on September 25th, 2018

   ​Here you can learn how to carefully clean your purse/bag/tote
    Cleaning  your favourite bag is not an easy task as you might think  especially when the purse is made of different materials: different types of genuine leather, fabric or synthetic material. 
         See, the article  http://tatyz.com/blog/2018/06/03/genuine-leather-types  how to identify the leather type.
 
    Genuine leather in most cases   is easy to clean as it often have top coat. If the leather has become dirty, clean it gently with a sponge​ or cloth with some of the leather balm or any other leather product.

       If your leather bags and wallets are made from full grain, vegetable-tanned leather or suede, No pigments or protective PU coat  is used to conceal natural defects in the leather, that  is why the  leather gets dirty more easily.  Try to avoid this type of leather to be wet.  If your  leather bag  has become wet, dry it at room temperature.  When the item is dry, use special rubber brush to bring the nap. Use special suede protective spray to refresh the colour and to add a protective coat. Keep the product in dust bags in dry conditions . Don't seal the bag into a plastic bag or box for months at a time to avoid  it to get  mouldy​.
  
    Apply leather grease or leather balm if the leather start to get mouldy. Use a small amount and apply a thin and even layer, for example with a sponge. Wipe off the excess with a clean and dry cloth. Always try first on a small inconspicuous surface to see how the color changes before you treat the whole bag. Note that greasing will also soften the leather a bit.

    Special  suede protection spray can be used to protect the suede bag from stains and water damage. Use soft clean brush(sponge)  or special suede brush     to clean suede from dust and dry dirt.  If your suede product has become wet, dry it at room temperature. Don’t rub any suede product while it is wet.
        If  your  suede/shoe handbag has dry spots, try rubbing them away gently with a clean pencil eraser or a suede cleaning block.

     
​ If your bag is made from canvas, dirt can normally be removed by carefully wiping the fabric with a moistened sponge and some mild soap. Be gentle, as hard rubbing on the fabric may cause spots. 
     If washing is absolutely necessary, we recommend careful hand washing. If hand washed, use lukewarm water and a mild, non-bleaching detergent.   Washcloth or soft bristle brush can be used to clean the material .After rinsing with water, stretch the wet product and let it hang dry.  
      Re-grease the leather details when almost completely dry.
     Metal accessory might require polishing over time.

by TATYZ on July 8th, 2018

Bags can vary in  size, structure, silhouettes. 

All bags can be divided by size in 3 main categories:
- small  (for example, clutch, wristlet)
- medium ( for example, messenger bag, backpack)
- large ( luggage bag, suitcase)
By structure bags can be divided into 2 categories:

- soft-structured bag ( for example,  hobo bag or pull-string bag)
- hard-structured bag ( for example, briefcase or box-bag)
Briefcases
By silhouettes bags can be divided into several categories by it's shape and construction:

- Bucket
- Snap frame
- Tote
- Wallet
- Barrel bag
- Drawstring bag
- Clutch
- Messenger
- Satchel
- Box bag
- Frame
- Back-pack
- Briefcase
- Camera bag
- Laptop bag
- Hobo bag
- Trapezoid
- Shoulder bag
- Crossbody
- Wristlet
- Luggage handle





 

by TATYZ on June 3rd, 2018

      Leathers are made from the skins of many animals but mainly cattle, goat, sheep and pigskins.  

     Although there is a great variety of leather types, a leather by appearance  can usually be put into one of three  major categories :

  1) Leather with top coat

  2) Leather without top coat

  3) Leather with velvety top finish



 LEATHER WITH TOP COAT 


   First type of leather has special  top coat  which helps to  protect the hide from  wearing out and stains.  This type of leather includes:
  •   Pigmented leather
  •   Semi-aniline leather
  •   BiCast  leather

   Pigmented (protected) leather have a  thick polymer surface coating which contains pigments. The grain surface  of full grain pigmented leather  is left intact before applying the surface coating. 
      In corrected grain pigmented leather, the grain surface is abraded to remove imperfections before the surface coating is applied. A decorative grain pattern is then embossed into the surface.
  Pigmented Leather  is  the most durable used in the majority of furniture upholstery and almost all car upholstery. 
   The surface coating allows the manufacturer more control over the properties of the leather, e.g. resistance to scuffing or fading. ​This makes the material less breathable but at the same time easier to clean and less sensitive to dirt.
  
 
   Semi-aniline leather have a light surface coating which contains a small amount of pigments . It is is more durable than aniline whilst still retaining a natural appearance. It has good  stain resistance qualities.​

   Bicast leather  (also known as laminated leather or reconstituted leather or finished split leather)  is made of 2 layers: split  bottom layer  of the hide and  top layer of polymer like polyurethane  which then can be embossed to look like a real leather.  Unlike pigmented and semi-aniline leather, bicast leather  is not as breathable and  lacking  in strength and flexibility. 
It should only be used in low stress applications because they are weaker than grain leather. ​


  LEATHER WITHOUT TOP COAT

  
   Leather without top coat  doesn't  have any thick protected top coat which gives it  more natural look. This category includes:
  •   Aniline leather
  •   Pull-up leather
  
     Aniline leather ( also known as nappa  leather, full grain) is the most natural looking leather with the unique surface characteristics of the hide remaining visible. Aniline leather is coloured only with dye and not with a surface coating of polymer . These leathers are also called natural, naked or unprotected. This means that you are able to see the actual surface grain and markings. It  is soft and breathable, but doesn't have water-resistant properties.
      Aniline leathers are extremely sensitive to dirt and fat, as well as to colour fading as leather´s pores are not sealed. A light surface coating(treatment) may be applied to enhance its appearance and offer slight protection against spillages , soiling and sunlight and makes it easier to clean but less breathable.

     Pull-up leather    also known as waxy or oily pull-up is the leather with natural appearance which id deeply impregnated with oils and waxes.  As you bend or pull this type of leather, oils in the skin move around  causing interesting colours and lighter tones to be visible. The look of this leather will change with use.  The oils and waxes provide even more beautiful shading and unique worn-in effect with time.

  
 
  LEATHER WITH VELVETY TOP FINISH
 

This type of leather has velvety effect. It includes:
  •  Nubuck
  •  Suede
  •  Velour

     Nubuck is basically soft  aniline dyed leather which has been lightly abraded/sanded on the grain surface to create a velvety finish or  slight nap. In some cases the grain pattern is still visible. The nap is very fine because of the tight fibre structure in the grain layer. The brushing also makes the leather even more absorbent than aniline leathers and may have a directional nap. It is soft to the touch, scratches easily, and water drops darken it temporarily (it dries to its original color). The overall effect is a texture similar to velvet, so people tend to confuse nubuck leathers with suede​.


   Suede is  the flesh-split (lower layer)  which has been abraded on to create a distinctive nap. The nap can vary in appearance but is not as fine as the nap on nubuck because of the looser fibre structure.  Suede has velvety look on both sides.
 
    Velour  is  the grain-split  (upper layer)  or just whole leather  ( depends on the thickness of leather)  bottom  side  of which  has been sanded to raise the nap.  The other side is the actual grain surface. Velours leather is extremely robust and breathable.
   
      Nubuck, suede, velour  don't have any protected coat.  Open nap makes a nubuck  and suede susceptible to fading when exposed to sunlight or excessive heat sources.› Nubucks tend to grab soil and dirts easily so it requires special cleaning and maintenance kits.  


    HOW TO IDENTIFY LEATHER TYPES?


     It takes time and experience. You must not only  look closely to its appearance,  but feel and handle it as well as identify  the finish of the leather and its pattern - natural grains and  creases, skin imperfections, artificial embossed pattern, etc.

     For example, aniline leather is light and flexible  and have  creases and pores of the hide because they have not been filled out by a surface coating.

     Semi-aniline leather has less distinctive creases because they have been partially filled by the surface coating as if the surface had been covered with a thin coat of paint.

     In pigmented leather creases of the grain pattern have been filled out as if the surface had been given a few coats of paint. In this case the grain pattern you see was embossed onto the finished leather.  It's very hard to identify genuine full grain and corrected embossed  grain. This leather is feel more stiff  and plastic and can also be shiny.

     Bicast leather is usually have a thick top polymer coat which you can easily see on  the edge.   Usually this type of leather doesn't have any  grain surface or  scars and imperfections. It feels rather plastic and stiff.

     Pull-up leather is easy to identify as it doesn't have even color. The colour of the leather will change  where the leather is pulled in two different directions . Surface scratches are more pronounced but can be removed by rubbing them with your fingertips. The warmth of your hand releases the natural oils, blending away the marks.​

     Velours and suede are soft leather with velvety  look  as they don't have any polymer coat. They  may  appear quite similar. Suede has velvety look on both  sides, while velours has it on only one side.

 Nubuck is  similar to suede but the nap is very short. The grain pattern is still visible as  is created from the outer side of a hide, giving it more strength and thickness and a fine grain. It is generally more expensive than suede. 
   
 
 

PIGMENTED LEATHER


SEMI-ANILINE LEATHER

 
BICAST LEATHER


ANILINE LEATHER


PULL-UP LEATHER


NUBUCK LEATHER

by TATYZ on May 25th, 2018

   Decorative seam is one of the most popular way to decorate leather shoes or leather accessories ( purses, gloves, etc).   Usually  thick contrast  color  thread is used , normally lighter shade than the leather.  

 For special  thick decorative seams,  a polyester braided thread, is the first choice.
The stitch length  for decorative seams  is  usually longer than the general purpose stitching and can vary  from  2.5- to 4 m).

   For machine stitching  It is extremely important to choose a bobbin thread that is not too fine for robust decorative seams. A rule of thumb is that the bobbin thread should be no more than one ticket number finer than the needle thread. Greater differences between needle and bobbin thread require extreme bobbin thread tension to ensure that it won’t be drawn up and become visible on the upper material. The bobbin thread that is usually shorter in decorative seams on leather is then stretched extensively and may possibly no longer feature sufficient tensile strength during the lasting process. Broken decorative seams can therefore be the unpleasant result of an incorrect bobbin thread ticket no. 


   Decorative hand stitching is also very popular  for hand-made shoe and accessories. Thick  waxed cotton or polyester braided thread are the best choices. 
      Decorative stitching normally does  not perform functional purpose of joining details. It is done on separate  leather detail before assembling the product. Underlining or interfacing is very important especially for thin leather.
      Decorative stitching   is widely used for different types of shoes ( both men  and women) - brogues, sandals, dance shoes.  
 One of the best example of decorative stitching on leather accessories  is Chanel bags.

by TATYZ on May 16th, 2018

     Green or Eco-friendly products are products that do not harm the environment whether in their production, use or disposal. In other words, these products help preserve the environment by significantly reducing the pollution they could produce. Eco-friendly products can be made from scratch, or from recycled materials. This kind of product is easily recognizable as it is, in most cases, labelled as such.​
      The basic pack of  " green certification"  includes product  with following features: 

- free of toxic and hazardous substances to health and environment
-  product which a capable of natural decomposition
-  product made of materials and components from natural origin or product made exclusively from vegetal origin materials
- chromium  and PVC free products
- products made of materials and components from recycling
- products made in factories with decreased CO2 emission
- product and packaging made in environmentally sustained conditions.

   One of the  green certification organisation specialised in green footwear is Biocalce. ​

    Biocalce certification intend to ensures the comfort and quality, resistance and durability in footwear that only uses materials free from toxic substances for the user and environment. To obtain the Biocalce label the materials and products are subjected to a wide range of laboratory testes and have to accomplish the established specifications. The models should present considerable resistant levels, keep the breathability properties, not stain the feet and should be free of chemical substances that in certain amounts are harmful to skin
and environment.  For more information see: http://www.biocalce.org
  
 
   TATYZ footwear and bags are made from natural origin materials:  natural cotton, genuine leather. We do not use PVC , PU or plastic materials in our product. TATYZ packaging is "plastic bag free" as we use  cotton pull string  bags. All our product are made in small local factory in Northern Thailand.

by TATYZ on May 12th, 2018

     SOLE is a bottom part of a shoe  which is in contact with the ground​.  It  can be made from a variety of materials as as natural rubber, polyurethane, or polyvinyl chloride (PVC) compounds,  wood, natural leather.  Soles can be simple — a single material in a single layer — or they can be complex, with multiple structures or layers and materials ( for example, wood platform with rubber  or natural leather with top rubber). Sole is often called outsole.

    The main function of the outsole (sole) is to protect the sole of the foot and  provide traction as well as to reduce wear on the midsole thereby increasing the overall durability of the shoe.   

      There are 3 main requirements applied to qualities of the sole material.
  •      Flexibility 
       Shoe soles has to be flexible as feet  bend while walking.  This mainly applies to low heel shoes and  athletic shoes.  A runner, needs to have the shoe flex where the foot naturally flexes. Designers and sport researchers, similar to the design considerations for cushioning, must keep in mind the natural flex lines of the foot relative the specific need of the sport.​
  •     Traction
   The traction properties of a shoe sole , really a measure of the friction between the outsole and the walking surface, are directly related to the materials used in the outsoles construction as well as the pattern on the outsole. ​
  •     ​Durability
    While walking or running  in a shoe, the outsole wears away, due to friction. In particular the parts of the shoe that come into contact with the ground the most, wear away the fastest.   Researchers and designers must take into account the points of contact  in order to design outsoles that do not wear out to quickly. 

   The other important requirements are :

   Abrasion: Abrasion is the property related with the resistance that a material can addle, when it is subject to friction. 
   Adhesion: This property determines the strength of adhesion between two surfaces: upper/outsole. 
   Hardness: Hardness is an intrinsic property of materials and normally is determined in plastics and rubbers by means of durometers.
   Thickness: Thickness can be determined for leather, rubber and soles materials. It can vary greatly.
   Tear strength: Tear strength is the force required to tear a material.
  Cushioning and shock absorption: Cushioning and shock absorption are related with contact of footwear in ground during walking. This properties can be assessed in soles, insocks, midsoles.
   Water resistance: This property is related to the penetration
of water in footwear through sole. For soles made from leather is very important.
   Thermal Insulation: This property is important for soles, midsoles,  insoles in  winter boots. Thermal insulation is a measure of the rate at which heat passes through a material or through a series of layers of different materials.
    Heat and fire protection:Heat and fire protection of materials are related to its heat transmission heat and combustion properties.The properties of  sole materials and products when subjected to fire can be evaluated through contact with the flame to assess the combustion rate, extension and combustion time. 
   Slip resistance: Slip resistance is related to the coefficient of friction between soles and the floor in which the footwear it’s in use. 
   








  

 

by TATYZ on May 1st, 2018

      Patterns and prints can be applied to decorate  leather. This can be done via  embossing.  

    Embossing and debossing are the processes of creating either raised or recessed relief images and designs on leather or other materials. An embossed pattern is raised against the background, while a debossed pattern is sunken into the surface of the material.
 
    Embossing alters the surface of leather  by providing a three-dimensional or raised effect on selected areas.​ To achieve this, metal dies with engraved pattern  are used for embossing press.  A specific level of pressure is applied to the dies in order to squeeze the fibers of the leather, which results in a permanently raised area on the leather.
   
The three factors that need to be controlled during the embossing process are:
 - Pressure
 - Heat
 - Die depth

    Embossing used in conjunction with ink/dyes/ pigments , so that the raised area is coloured. When no ink is used , it's called a blind emboss.​

     Embossing involves a separate stage in the production process of leather. It requires a separate press run. In addition to being used as a design element, embossing can be used to hide natural leather small imperfections.

   

by TATYZ on April 13th, 2018

​     Leather is a durable and flexible material created by tanning animal rawhides. It's a fibrous substance comprising a closely interwoven system of fibres that have natural elasticity.

    The process of changing the skin of animal into leather consists of three main stages:
  •    Preparation for tanning
  •    Tanning
  •    Finishing
    Hides and skins are brought to the tannery in a cured condition to prevent them from putrefaction.

    At the tannery skins are properly washed and cleaned. The next operations are fleshing, soaking, depilation. Fleshing consists in removing excess of flash and fat on the underside of the hide. The purpose of the soaking process is soften the hides and remove the salt dung and dirt adhering to them. Depilation  is a removal of the hair and epidermis. It may be done by liming or by using sodium sulphide  and other material of sulphide group when the preliminary  treatment is provided the skins are ready for a conventional tanning process.
 
   Tanning is  the series of processes by which the natural skins are converted into leather. The purpose of tanning process is to bring about changes of the skin properties preserving the hides from putrefaction.
  The tanning liquid is made with tanning extract from vegetable material or tannin may be extracted from minerals.
   There are several methods of tanning, each producing a special type of leather with special characteristics: vegetable tanning, chrome tanning, oil tanning, alum tanning, combination tanning. 

    Finishing operations are of great importance in transmitting a harsh stiff material into the beautiful finished leather we recognise in our product. The most important finishing processes are bleaching, stuffing, colouring, staking, fat-liquoring, sammying. 


       

by TATYZ on March 27th, 2018

    Leather is one of the oldest natural material known to human. Leather is a fibrous substance comprising a closely interwoven system of fibres that have natural elasticity. It's sold per square foot, and is called skins. There are several main  skins available: cowhide, calf, sheep/lamb, goat/kids, pigskin.

  Different types  of tanning process is used to turn hide to leather. Most hides have to be split because it is too thick to be used in any type of manufacturing.  Different coats (polymer or pigments)  can also be applied on  top surface  of the leather to achieve different finishes and looks ( patent leather, suede, embossed leather, etc)

     Leather is a very versatile material especially  for footwear due to its unique properties, the most important of them being tensility, strength, elongation, flexibility, ability to absorb and transmit  moisture, breathing and insulating qualities.

      Artificial  leather ( known as  faux leather, vegan Leather, PU Leather, PVC Leather, synthetic Leather)  is a material made by  human beings, mainly  with 2 layers: bottom  layer (usually textile or non-woven material) and Polyurethane, PVC  or other  surface.  PU leather is cheaper than genuine leather,  it  has a nice-looking finish, but is not as durable, as full-grain leather​. Artificial  leather doesn't have ability to breathe as well as absorb and transmit moisture from human skin,it lacks the natural elasticity  that why is not an ideal material for footwear.