T A T Y Z
by TATYZ on April 15th, 2019

     How to choose shoes for your children?  

   Choosing right size and type of shoes,  checking quality and proper materials of shoes,  you will help your child to avoid many health problems in future like  bunions, hammertoes and foot pain, deformity of the foot. One of the most common and dangerous diseases that appears and develops due to the wearing of poor-quality or improperly selected children's shoes is flatfoot.

    Babies do not need shoes. Newborns, sitters and crawlers only need booties or socks to keep their feet warm, or pre-walking shoes that do not bind their feet. The shoe should be highly flexible.  They should NOT be rigid or stiff in the sole. It’s very important that the shoe be shaped like the child’s foot.  It is best use socks with a pre-walking shoe as their feet can be sweaty and cause friction on their tender toes.
 
    Doctors-orthopedists believe that as soon as the child will start to walk   (between nine and twelve months) , it is necessary for it to wear shoes even if it  grow out of them in six months.
  General rule: your child needs a flat, soft and bendy sole for their foot health.
  Shoes for toddlers (9 months to 3 years) should allow the foot to breathe, since their feet sweat profusely at this age.
   Toddlers can go barefoot in a protected environment, such as indoors.

                                                                 SHOE SIZE GUIDE

   What size baby shoes should you buy?

 First of all, child shoes should be larger than the feet, when measured from heel to the top of the big toe. It's  around 0.5 - 1 cm for sandals, 1-1.5 cm for closed shoes  and  spring/autumn boots,  1,5-2 cm for winter boots .That gives your baby a good toe wiggle and growth room.

   When possible,  try child shoes on.  If you order shoe online, you need to measure your child feet.

HOW TO MEASURE YOUR CHILD'S FEET

To measure your child's feet:

1.   Place  child's foot on a piece of paper. Make sure they are bearing weight and standing up straight.
2. Draw a line around the heel and the toes, as close to their foot as possible.
3. Measure your child's foot length  from the  back of the heel to the top of the longest toe.
  It’s also a good idea to measure both feet since one foot many times is a little bit bigger than the other. You should generally purchase the size that fits the largest foot.

 
 However,  in stores you don't see shoe sizes in inches or centimetres, you see them in different numbers. Different brands will size their shoes differently. Most of shoe manufacturers have its own shoe charts, based on baby/child foot lenghts. You don't need to add  any length allowances to your baby foot length if you want to buy right-to-fit shoes, as toe  room  and grows allowances  are usually built into  conversion chart  by the manufacturer.       Manufacturer's shoe lasts (plastic or wood  shoe form)  which are used to make shoes, already has this allowances build in their shape as shoe  inner measurement is determined by the shoe lasts.
 See, general conversion shoe size chart based on  exact  foot   measurement.

The second important issue is quality of shoes and materials which shoes are made from.

When choosing children's shoes, pay attention to:

1.  Sole. The basic rule is: the smaller the child, the more  flexible the sole should be. In high-quality children's shoes, the sole is always wide, light and has a roll from the heel part to the toe with a certain angle, which helps the child to put the foot correctly and not stumble when walking. Before you buy shoes, bend them in your hands to check the flexibility of the sole. When a child takes a step, the shoe should bend at the base of the toe.  If the sole of the shoe bends in the middle, then such shoes can harm the foot of the child, since anatomically the human foot is not designed to bend between the heel and the front of the foot.
  Make sure, shoe sole is anti slippery.
 
2. Heel. A small heel is needed so that there is a small difference between the heel and toe. It helps your child to walk properly  and  prevents the baby to fall back. Foe the first shoes, the heel  height should be no more than  5-7 mm.  The length of the shoe  heel should be  at least 1/3 of the  length of the sole to support the  foot heel and back segment of the arch.

3.  Heel counter.  The heel counter  must be firm with a rounded top shape to deliver the stable support and soft comfort that developing feet need . In small baby shoes the  heel  counter should cover not only the heel of the foot , but also the ankle area (bone) to  support the arch of the foot . This kind of  high top shoe shape   insure the correct position  of the  heel and eliminates its deformation when walking. Squeeze the counter with your thumb and forefinger, if it is too soft, then from constant wear it will completely weaken, and the shoe will not support the ankle and heel of your baby foot. Shoe counter shouldn't move from left to right .
 
4. Instep supporter. Make sure shoes have instep supporter - a soft cushion on the inside of the sole, which supports the arch of the foot. The arch support will prevent the flatfoot developing. This pad according  should have a different thickness depending on the size of the shoe.

5. Shoe upper. Top and sides of the shoes. Shoe upper should be made from flexible material.  If the shoe  upper  are not flexible enough and the child’s foot cannot easily bend inside the shoe when walking.

6. Shoe material.  Upper and lining of  good quality shoe  should be made from natural materials( leather, suede, nubuck) This allows your baby's foot to breathe, so it won't be hot in such shoes in summer, and  in winter it will not be cold. Shoes must not have a strong smell. Odor indicates the use of low-quality materials. Try to avoid buying shoes that are made of synthetic materials.

7. Insole. It should be made from leather which help to absorb  moisture from foot. In high quality shoes, the insole is made of several layers: leather and  polyethylene foam under it, which gives softness and good cushioning. Many leather and canvas shoes have removable inner soles which means they can go through the wash.

 8. Fastening system. Child shoe has to have good and secure fastening system - laces or velcro ( zip for boots). It should prevent child's foot to move around in shoe when walking. Velcro fasteners make it easier to get shoes on and off . But your baby may figure out how to open them and remove his/her shoes. Laces are not that easy to open. If you choose shoes with laces, make sure they're long enough to tie into double knots. Then they will not come undone as often.


by TATYZ on February 11th, 2019

  Sambo is one of the most popular fighting sport.

Sambo shoes is very important element for fighter and require to have several features, the main of which are:
 
  1) It has to be anatomic, light and soft
  2) Boot soles has to be flexible and provide traction with anti-slip qualities
  3)  all seams shall be closed up inside
  4) ankles and feet at the big toe joint shall be protected by small reinforcement pads
  5)  boot-top height shall be 5-10 cm  higher of lateral (external) part of the ankle;
  6) boot-top form may be straight or oblique
  7) after lacing the shoes, boot-top must be tightly fitted around the ankles
  8) tongue height shall not exceed the height of boot-top by more than 1 cm
  9) Upper materials   should have ability to breathe as well as absorb and transmit moisture   from foot
 10)  lacing has to be  strong

   Natural buffalo/cow hide leather/suede  for upper and sole  is one of the best option for sambo shoe as it is durable, soft, breathable material.
  Boots made from genuine leather are usually unlined. Assembled upper and sole are sewn together.

SAMBO shoes shall correspond to international standard shoe sizes for men.

Sambo/ Wrestling Sambo/ Fighting Sport Boot pattern


by TATYZ on January 30th, 2019

     New York, London, Paris, Los Angeles, Milan, Tokyo....Many of us commute to/from  work everyday  by train, metro or any other city transport whether you live in  a quiet outskirts  or just other part of a city.

  The  long daily commute is  monotonous  and could be boring.  You have to take with you not only your work  papers and laptop but something to entertain yourself on the way - book, smartphone,  head phones. The ideal commuter backpack or bag should hold all of your work essentials and everyday travel gear in place. It should also be easy to carry and never too bulky. For safety It must have a  zip or any secure closure to prevent a theft.  It should be stylish, light,  made from hight quality natural material and don't look "cheap".

    To find out what is the best style and size of a commuter bag you need, list your belongings  first. Shoulder/ crossbody messenger style bag, backpack  would be ideal if you normally carry these essentials:

 - wallet
- smartphone
- A4 document folder
- charges
- keys
- bottle of water
- eyewear glasses
- cosmetic bag
- book

  TATYZ stone-washed  and leather backpack is designed to be a lightweight, slim carry for an easy commute, but spacious enough for the modern essentials. The classic look of them  won’t go out of style.

    Black, brown, beige, dark blue, olive colors are practical,  will never go out of fashion and will match nearly any colour clothing or work uniform.

     The backpack may appear small but it offers loads of interior storage thanks to its compressed storage capacity and external zip pockets. The backpack also features 2 side  and back zip outer pocket. 
   The on-the-go shoulder bag  with detachable cross-body strap  is ideal  for work commuting  if you need to carry your laptop.  It features  internal zip compartments and smartphone pockets.  This  bag can be worn on shoulder or can be folded to wear cross-body. 
 The bag has made only from 100 % natural materials - stone-washed  cotton canvas, genuine leather and cotton designer logo lining, which guarantee durability unlike synthetic materials.

by TATYZ on January 16th, 2019

  Footwear
Any form or footwear made of various kinds of materials or combination of materials like leather, canvas, rubber, textiles, wood synthetics to protect the foot from cold, heat, thorns, hazards, etc., and to serve as a costume in the form of sandal, shoe or boot. These shall include walking shoes, dress shoes, occasional footwear, sports footwear, occupational footwear, orthopaedic and surgical footwear meant for the use of babies, children, ladies or gents.

Shoe
   A footwear having an outer covering for the entire feet not coming much above the ankle. It is built up or assembled on a last or appropriate mould to the required shape, size and fitting.

   Footwear components

Any fabric or semi-fabricated component made of various kinds of materials or combination of materials such as leather, canvas, textiles, wood and synthetics for use in the manufacture of the footwear.
  The upper part of the shoe consists of number of components such as vamp, quarters, toe box, counter, throat etc. and the same are aligned and assembled together by various methods. The upper component of the shoe is usually made of a variety of materials and is designed to allow the foot to breathe.
 The bottom part of the shoe consists of number of components, such as insole, sole heel, shank etc. and the same are aligned and assembled together by various methods. The assembled upper part and bottom parts are attached to each other by various methods.


    Upper components

 Vamp
 The section of boot or shoe upper which covers the foot at the joint area, lying between the toe cap and quarter. It is subjected to maximum flexing while walking.

Tongue
 A piece of upper leather placed below the facings and eyelets to prevent the direct contact of the foot with the laces. Tongue may be a separate piece or one with the vamp.
 
Toe cap
  The portion of the upper which covers the toe-end of the foot, extending from the vamp up to the toe end.

Quarters
 The sections of the upper which cover the heel and connect vamp of the footwear. It is sometimes joined at the back by a back strip.
 
Box Toe
  A stiffener used to maintain and reinforce the shape of the shoe to, preserve the toe-room allowed within the shoe, and to protect the wearer’s toes from blows. Rigid box toes are made of leather, thermoplastic resin-impregnated fibre, solvent softened plastic-impregnated fibre, and water softened starch-impregnated buck ram. Flexible box toes are made of thermoplastic cork combination with fabric backing, and plastic laminates placed between fabric sheets. Soft box toes are made of rubberized felt or fabric. Metal box toss are used in some safety footwears.

Counter
 A piece of stiffening material which passes around the heel of the boot/shoe to support the outer leather. In orthopaedic shoes the counter is extended forward in the innerside. In heavy and industrial bootslshoes for miners, furnacemen and steel workers metal counters are used on the outside of the boot and shoe. It may also mean a small piece of lining material stitched inside the boot and shoe at the back to rain the small stiffener specially in the unlined boot and shoe. One upper portion of the boot and shoe back is also known as counter.

Lining
 The inside material used under the upper. These are generally cut to the same shape of upper, giving certain allowances. These are named after the components, for example, vamp lining, tongue lining and quarter lining. Vamp linings are generally taken out of fabric whereas the others from the tanned goat, sheep or calf skins or splits.

Stiffeners
A pre-shaped stiffening material inserted between the outside and the lining or attached to the quarters if the footwear is unlined.

Quarter lining
The materials used as linings of the quarters of footwear.

Interlining
A material used between the footwear upper and lining to increase thickness, strength and plumpness of the upper materials as well as to prevent the shape of the shoe during wear.


Bottom components

   The lower portion of the shoe consists of the sole, shank and heel. The sole is divided into the insole and the outsole. The outsole should be waterproof, durable and possess some level of friction high enough to prevent slipping. The shank reinforces the shoe to prevent distortion of the shape of the shoe from regular wear. The heel is designed to hit the ground with each step forward.

 Insole of a Shoe
A component of the shoe bottom resting at the bottom of the last which holds the upper and the sole firmly in position. This is also known as foundation of the shoe.

 Bottom filler
The material ( cork, felt, rubber etc) used to fill up the cavity formed by the lasted margin of the upper and the insole.

Heel
The seat part of the footwear bottom sometimes attached separately and sometimes an integral part of the sole. It may be of leather, rubber, wood, plastics (like PVC, polyurethane, etc,) nitrite, masonite board, particle board, etc, and may be of various types given under their non names, namely, Spanish, Louis, Wedge, etc. The heel tip/top lift is an integral part of the heel.

Welt
A special strip of leather with one edge on the grain side bevelled and a groove on the flesh side for the welt stitches. It is attached to the insole and upper around the outer edge of the footwear and to which the outsole is attached afterwards.

Soles
The bottom pieces of any variety of footwear which are in contact with the ground.

Sock
The lining material which cover partially or completely the insole of footwear.

Shank

A piece of material, such as steel, wood or fibre-board, inserted between the sole and the insole, extending from the heel scat up to a point behind the ball line. This is used to stiffen the waist portion of the shoe so that it can support tha arch of the foot.


Midsoles
Soles cut to the shape of the outsoles and used between the outsoles and insoles to increase the thickness of the soles.


by TATYZ on December 4th, 2018

Footwear
    Any form or footwear made of various kinds of materials or combination of materials like leather, canvas, rubber, textiles, wood synthetics to protect the foot from cold, heat, thorns, hazards, etc., and to serve as a costume in the form of sandal, shoe or boot. These shall include walking shoes, dress shoes, occasional footwear, sports footwear, occupational footwear, orthopaedic and surgical footwear meant for the use of babies, children, ladies or gents.

   Shoe
    A footwear having an outer covering for the entire feet not coming much above the ankle. It is built up or assembled on a last or appropriate mould to the required shape, size and fitting. The upper part of the shoe consists of number of components such as vamp, quarters, counter, etc. and the same are aligned and assembled together by various methods. The bottom part of the shoe consists of number of components, such as insole, sole heel, etc. and the same are aligned and assembled together by various methods. The assembled upper part and bottom parts are attached to each other by various methods.

   Boot
  A name given to any shoe reaching above the ankle or still higher. Bootie is sometimes used for short boots although this is used more to describe women's or children ankle-high boots.
 
     GUIDE TO SHOE TYPES 

     Balmoral

  A type of gents’ boots or shoes having a closed front-laced ankle. It is characterized by the vamp wings extended to either side, to form a golosh.
 
  Derby shoe
   An open throat, laced shoe with tongue, cut in one piece with the vamp or separately. The quarter lies over the vamp.
Brogue shoe
A balmorai type of shoe with perforations and gimpings on the upper.
 Oxford shoes
   A laced shoe with closed  tabs (eyelet tabs stitched under the vamp).
 Monk shoe
 Shoe of three pieces of upper with a side buckle. This is one of the basic shoe designs.
  Moccasin shoes
 Shoes having inserted circular tongue attached to one piece vamp (basic type). The vamp extends under the foot and its upper edges are attached to the apron covering the top of the foot. There is, therefore, no insole.
Fringe 
A type of slip-on shoe with  front fringe
Loafer
  A slip-on shoe intended for outdoor wear. Essentially a low heel pump, a loafer always has an apron vamp. It can have a wide instep strap across throat.
 
Sneakers
   Rubber soled canvas  sport shoes.
 Pump
A low cut slip-on shoe made without any closure. it's a unisex term
 Mules
A slipper made from outdoor wear, usually heeled, and having no quarters, thus exposing the heel of the foot. This is one of the basic footwear designs.
   D’Orsay
  A pump shoe, cut low on both sides, the curves extending downwards towards the centre of the shank and meeting in a broad v-shaped.
   Mary-Jane
 The name Mary Jane  has been used to refer to  pumps with single bar or strap across instep
    Sling-back 
 A sling-back is low or high-heeled pumps  identified by the strap around the back of the heel
 Peep toe
Peep toe pumps is classic pumps with open toes.
  Sandal
 An open type of footwear having an upper part not covering the entire foot. The upper part of sandal consists of one or more components such as strap, vamp, laces
   Gore shoe
 A shoe with elasticized side or front.
    Ballerina
  A flat-heeled pump designed to resemble a ballet shoes

by TATYZ on October 17th, 2018

      Moccasins is one of the oldest type of footwear  as well as sandals known to humans.  In the early age it was made of 1 piece of leather pulled tightly with a  string around  the foot. Since then the construction and design of moccasins have change a lot and nowadays  a moccasin is a shoe, made  other soft leather, consisting of a sole and sides made of one piece of leather, stitched together at the top  with a vamp (additional panel of leather).  

    This type of footwear is light and comfortable as it doesn't have a midsole and toe stiffener, sometimes it doesn't have full lining. The sole is soft and flexible made of moulded material ( rubber, PU, etc) or leather with/ without welt and stacked leather heel.

   Moccasin upper consists of 2 main details: the body  which covers the sides and bottom of the foot and the upper vamp/tongue which covers top of the foot and ​hand-stitched to the body. The body detail can also have separate heel counter detail, the upper vamp can have additional tongue (if moccasin is laced) or decorative details ( strap with buckle).
     
  There are few examples of moccasin design on the photo below.
   
​There are many ways of  stitching the body details with the vamp. Here are few of them.

 
​To make moccasins you need a pair of rounded toe low-heel shoe lasts.

Here is step-by-step guide how to design basic moccasins.

1.  Cover the surface of shoe last with masking tape and mark  technical lines and points as on the photo. Draw lines of the upper vamp and other decorative details
2. Prepare outer and inner side to be flattened by marking the parallels.
2.  ​Then remove each side to be flattened. Make some slots in the outer side  (as shown)  in order to reduce stress given by the 2D flattening.
 
3. ​Make some slots in the inner side  (as shown) 
4. Flattening the outer and inner sides
5. Flat details 
6. Draw the  body detail using insole and outer/inner side details
7. Upper vamp with correction
8. Final pattern of the upper vamp with holes for hand stitching, heel counter and decorative strap
9. Final pattern of the body detail
10. Lining pattern

by TATYZ on September 25th, 2018

   ​Here you can learn how to carefully clean your purse/bag/tote
    Cleaning  your favourite bag is not an easy task as you might think  especially when the purse is made of different materials: different types of genuine leather, fabric or synthetic material. 
         See, the article  http://tatyz.com/blog/2018/06/03/genuine-leather-types  how to identify the leather type.
 
    Genuine leather in most cases   is easy to clean as it often have top coat. If the leather has become dirty, clean it gently with a sponge​ or cloth with some of the leather balm or any other leather product.

       If your leather bags and wallets are made from full grain, vegetable-tanned leather or suede, No pigments or protective PU coat  is used to conceal natural defects in the leather, that  is why the  leather gets dirty more easily.  Try to avoid this type of leather to be wet.  If your  leather bag  has become wet, dry it at room temperature.  When the item is dry, use special rubber brush to bring the nap. Use special suede protective spray to refresh the colour and to add a protective coat. Keep the product in dust bags in dry conditions . Don't seal the bag into a plastic bag or box for months at a time to avoid  it to get  mouldy​.
  
    Apply leather grease or leather balm if the leather start to get mouldy. Use a small amount and apply a thin and even layer, for example with a sponge. Wipe off the excess with a clean and dry cloth. Always try first on a small inconspicuous surface to see how the color changes before you treat the whole bag. Note that greasing will also soften the leather a bit.

    Special  suede protection spray can be used to protect the suede bag from stains and water damage. Use soft clean brush(sponge)  or special suede brush     to clean suede from dust and dry dirt.  If your suede product has become wet, dry it at room temperature. Don’t rub any suede product while it is wet.
        If  your  suede/shoe handbag has dry spots, try rubbing them away gently with a clean pencil eraser or a suede cleaning block.

     
​ If your bag is made from canvas, dirt can normally be removed by carefully wiping the fabric with a moistened sponge and some mild soap. Be gentle, as hard rubbing on the fabric may cause spots. 
     If washing is absolutely necessary, we recommend careful hand washing. If hand washed, use lukewarm water and a mild, non-bleaching detergent.   Washcloth or soft bristle brush can be used to clean the material .After rinsing with water, stretch the wet product and let it hang dry.  
      Re-grease the leather details when almost completely dry.
     Metal accessory might require polishing over time.

by TATYZ on July 8th, 2018

Bags can vary in  size, structure, silhouettes. 

All bags can be divided by size in 3 main categories:
- small  (for example, clutch, wristlet)
- medium ( for example, messenger bag, backpack)
- large ( luggage bag, suitcase)
By structure bags can be divided into 2 categories:

- soft-structured bag ( for example,  hobo bag or pull-string bag)
- hard-structured bag ( for example, briefcase or box-bag)
Briefcases
By silhouettes bags can be divided into several categories by it's shape and construction:

- Bucket
- Snap frame
- Tote
- Wallet
- Barrel bag
- Drawstring bag
- Clutch
- Messenger
- Satchel
- Box bag
- Frame
- Back-pack
- Briefcase
- Camera bag
- Laptop bag
- Hobo bag
- Trapezoid
- Shoulder bag
- Crossbody
- Wristlet
- Luggage handle





 
Bags can vary in  size, structure, silhouettes. 

All bags can be divided by size in 3 main categories:
- small  (for example, clutch, wristlet)
- medium ( for example, messenger bag, backpack)
- large ( luggage bag, suitcase)

by TATYZ on June 3rd, 2018

      Leathers are made from the skins of many animals but mainly cattle, goat, sheep and pigskins.  

     Although there is a great variety of leather types, a leather by appearance  can usually be put into one of three  major categories :

  1) Leather with top coat

  2) Leather without top coat

  3) Leather with velvety top finish



 LEATHER WITH TOP COAT 


   First type of leather has special  top coat  which helps to  protect the hide from  wearing out and stains.  This type of leather includes:
  •   Pigmented leather
  •   Semi-aniline leather
  •   BiCast  leather

   Pigmented (protected) leather have a  thick polymer surface coating which contains pigments. The grain surface  of full grain pigmented leather  is left intact before applying the surface coating. 
      In corrected grain pigmented leather, the grain surface is abraded to remove imperfections before the surface coating is applied. A decorative grain pattern is then embossed into the surface.
  Pigmented Leather  is  the most durable used in the majority of furniture upholstery and almost all car upholstery. 
   The surface coating allows the manufacturer more control over the properties of the leather, e.g. resistance to scuffing or fading. ​This makes the material less breathable but at the same time easier to clean and less sensitive to dirt.
  
 
   Semi-aniline leather have a light surface coating which contains a small amount of pigments . It is is more durable than aniline whilst still retaining a natural appearance. It has good  stain resistance qualities.​

   Bicast leather  (also known as laminated leather or reconstituted leather or finished split leather)  is made of 2 layers: split  bottom layer  of the hide and  top layer of polymer like polyurethane  which then can be embossed to look like a real leather.  Unlike pigmented and semi-aniline leather, bicast leather  is not as breathable and  lacking  in strength and flexibility. 
It should only be used in low stress applications because they are weaker than grain leather. ​


  LEATHER WITHOUT TOP COAT

  
   Leather without top coat  doesn't  have any thick protected top coat which gives it  more natural look. This category includes:
  •   Aniline leather
  •   Pull-up leather
  
     Aniline leather ( also known as nappa  leather, full grain) is the most natural looking leather with the unique surface characteristics of the hide remaining visible. Aniline leather is coloured only with dye and not with a surface coating of polymer . These leathers are also called natural, naked or unprotected. This means that you are able to see the actual surface grain and markings. It  is soft and breathable, but doesn't have water-resistant properties.
      Aniline leathers are extremely sensitive to dirt and fat, as well as to colour fading as leather´s pores are not sealed. A light surface coating(treatment) may be applied to enhance its appearance and offer slight protection against spillages , soiling and sunlight and makes it easier to clean but less breathable.

     Pull-up leather    also known as waxy or oily pull-up is the leather with natural appearance which id deeply impregnated with oils and waxes.  As you bend or pull this type of leather, oils in the skin move around  causing interesting colours and lighter tones to be visible. The look of this leather will change with use.  The oils and waxes provide even more beautiful shading and unique worn-in effect with time.

  
 
  LEATHER WITH VELVETY TOP FINISH
 

This type of leather has velvety effect. It includes:
  •  Nubuck
  •  Suede
  •  Velour

     Nubuck is basically soft  aniline dyed leather which has been lightly abraded/sanded on the grain surface to create a velvety finish or  slight nap. In some cases the grain pattern is still visible. The nap is very fine because of the tight fibre structure in the grain layer. The brushing also makes the leather even more absorbent than aniline leathers and may have a directional nap. It is soft to the touch, scratches easily, and water drops darken it temporarily (it dries to its original color). The overall effect is a texture similar to velvet, so people tend to confuse nubuck leathers with suede​.


   Suede is  the flesh-split (lower layer)  which has been abraded on to create a distinctive nap. The nap can vary in appearance but is not as fine as the nap on nubuck because of the looser fibre structure.  Suede has velvety look on both sides.
 
    Velour  is  the grain-split  (upper layer)  or just whole leather  ( depends on the thickness of leather)  bottom  side  of which  has been sanded to raise the nap.  The other side is the actual grain surface. Velours leather is extremely robust and breathable.
   
      Nubuck, suede, velour  don't have any protected coat.  Open nap makes a nubuck  and suede susceptible to fading when exposed to sunlight or excessive heat sources.› Nubucks tend to grab soil and dirts easily so it requires special cleaning and maintenance kits.  


    HOW TO IDENTIFY LEATHER TYPES?


     It takes time and experience. You must not only  look closely to its appearance,  but feel and handle it as well as identify  the finish of the leather and its pattern - natural grains and  creases, skin imperfections, artificial embossed pattern, etc.

     For example, aniline leather is light and flexible  and have  creases and pores of the hide because they have not been filled out by a surface coating.

     Semi-aniline leather has less distinctive creases because they have been partially filled by the surface coating as if the surface had been covered with a thin coat of paint.

     In pigmented leather creases of the grain pattern have been filled out as if the surface had been given a few coats of paint. In this case the grain pattern you see was embossed onto the finished leather.  It's very hard to identify genuine full grain and corrected embossed  grain. This leather is feel more stiff  and plastic and can also be shiny.

     Bicast leather is usually have a thick top polymer coat which you can easily see on  the edge.   Usually this type of leather doesn't have any  grain surface or  scars and imperfections. It feels rather plastic and stiff.

     Pull-up leather is easy to identify as it doesn't have even color. The colour of the leather will change  where the leather is pulled in two different directions . Surface scratches are more pronounced but can be removed by rubbing them with your fingertips. The warmth of your hand releases the natural oils, blending away the marks.​

     Velours and suede are soft leather with velvety  look  as they don't have any polymer coat. They  may  appear quite similar. Suede has velvety look on both  sides, while velours has it on only one side.

 Nubuck is  similar to suede but the nap is very short. The grain pattern is still visible as  is created from the outer side of a hide, giving it more strength and thickness and a fine grain. It is generally more expensive than suede. 
   
 
 

PIGMENTED LEATHER


SEMI-ANILINE LEATHER

 
BICAST LEATHER


ANILINE LEATHER


PULL-UP LEATHER


NUBUCK LEATHER

by TATYZ on May 25th, 2018

   Decorative seam is one of the most popular way to decorate leather shoes or leather accessories ( purses, gloves, etc).   Usually  thick contrast  color  thread is used , normally lighter shade than the leather.  

 For special  thick decorative seams,  a polyester braided thread, is the first choice.
The stitch length  for decorative seams  is  usually longer than the general purpose stitching and can vary  from  2.5- to 4 m).

   For machine stitching  It is extremely important to choose a bobbin thread that is not too fine for robust decorative seams. A rule of thumb is that the bobbin thread should be no more than one ticket number finer than the needle thread. Greater differences between needle and bobbin thread require extreme bobbin thread tension to ensure that it won’t be drawn up and become visible on the upper material. The bobbin thread that is usually shorter in decorative seams on leather is then stretched extensively and may possibly no longer feature sufficient tensile strength during the lasting process. Broken decorative seams can therefore be the unpleasant result of an incorrect bobbin thread ticket no. 


   Decorative hand stitching is also very popular  for hand-made shoe and accessories. Thick  waxed cotton or polyester braided thread are the best choices. 
      Decorative stitching normally does  not perform functional purpose of joining details. It is done on separate  leather detail before assembling the product. Underlining or interfacing is very important especially for thin leather.
      Decorative stitching   is widely used for different types of shoes ( both men  and women) - brogues, sandals, dance shoes.  
 One of the best example of decorative stitching on leather accessories  is Chanel bags.





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